WP1 - Global human settlements data

Objectives:

  • (a) Development, implementation and application of innovative methods for the EO-based generation of new, high resolution (HR) global human settlement layers (GHSL) showing a so far unique spatial detail (<100m raster cell size).
  • (b) Establishment of a data repository for easy access and use of HR-GHSL data.
  • (c) Development of standards for the specification and validation GHSL data sets.

Tasks:

  • 1. Implementation and demonstration of new methods for the generation of HR-GHSL derived from HR/VHR optical and/or SAR data.
  • 2. Development of standards for the specification and validation GHSL data sets.
  • 3. Characterization and comparison of HR-GHSL methods and data sets defined in Task 1 for supersite areas based on standards and procedures defined by Task 2. This also includes comparison to existing global MR layers.
  • 4. Development and provision of a data repository for easy access and use of new HR-GHSL data sets and other data/geo-information products on urban areas (e.g. population data set).

WP2 - Urban extent and associated change

Objectives:

  • (d) Evaluate exiting and new remote sensing data that is able to estimate urban extents and their changes at both regional and global scales.
  • (e) Evaluate current methods and projects that can be connected to and be used at the global level.
  • (f) Conduct urban extent delineation in the global aspect.
  • (g) Perform urban land cover change analysis for the most rapid growth cities and regions in the world.

Tasks:

  • 5. Assess appropriate data sources and methods for mapping urban extent at global scale, especially remote sensing data that can provide both regional and global scale details.
  • 6. Highlight hot spots that experienced most rapid growths in both population and urban land cover in the last decade around the world.
  • 7. Characterize and quantify urban extents by using remote sensing data, including nighttime light, MOIDS, Landsat imagery and SAR data.
  • 8. Examine urban land cover change patterns for the most rapid growth regions around the world.

WP3 - Risks in urban areas

Objectives:

  • (h) to survey existing projects to link EO data and risk computation at the global level, to assess the usefulness if the global layers to be developed within SB-04;
  • (i) to dictate guidelines to further develop existing data sets into products valuable to the previous aim;
  • (j) to implement and validate a set of the proposed novel implementations in one or more test sites of the SB-04 task.

Tasks:

  • 9. collection of existing technical papers and it best practices by the partners of SB-04 about the use of EO data in risk-related activities for urban area, detailing the requirements for any products to be developed and/or designed by the SB-04 partners;
  • 10. definition of the requirements for global/regional product extracted from EO data for risk-related activities;
  • 11. definition of existing and future data sets, as well as algorithms and methodologies, that can be used to achieve the above mentioned product requirements, including methodologies for assessment of the "raw data" in input and the results in ouput;
  • 12. implementation of a pilot analysis aimed at extracting one or more of these products in one or more test sites;
  • 13. validation of the results of the pilot analysis suing existing data, ground survey and any other approach that is possible to implement by the SB-04 partners.

WP4 - Urban biophysical parameters

Objectives:

  • (k) to survey the literature for studies that have derived biophysical parameters of the urban environment from remotely sensed data and those that have analyzed the factors and drivers of urban land-atmosphere interactions, such as those related to land surface temperature, emissivity of urban surfaces, albedo, and vegetation cover using remote sensing;
  • (l) to assess the potential impacts of climate change on urban areas and to evaluate the utility of remote sensing data for observing, measuring and modeling these impacts based on defined indicators of climate change (e.g., those indicators that have been defined to measure climate change impacts as related to the urban environment that are described by the U.S. National Climate Assessment).
  • (m) evaluate climate change adaptation measures and mitigation strategies appropriate for urban areas and assess how remote sensing data can be utilized to successfully implement and accomplish defined adaptation and mitigation measures or strategies.
  • (n) investigate and analyze how remote sensing data obtained at multiple spatial, temporal, and spectral scales can be used to model a, b, and c above, within the overall construct of top-down or bottom-up modeling approaches.

Tasks:

  • 14. survey the published scientific literature on investigations that have derived biophysical parameters for urban areas from remote sensing data;
  • 15. evaluate the potential impacts that climate change will have on urban environments in different geographic locations using criteria established for indicators of climate change by the U.S. National Climate Assessment, with focus on how multispatial, multitemporal, and multispectral remote sensing data can be used to identify climate change impacts;
  • 16. develop an assessment of climate change adaptation or mitigation strategies for urban areas that can implemented by decision and policy makers, and evaluate how remote sensing data can best be utilized to develop and implement adaptation or mitigation strategies;
  • 17. begin to investigate how multispatial, temporal, and spectral remote sensing data can be integrated into top-down or bottom-up environmental and climate change models to assist in accomplishing tasks 1-3.

WP5 - Urban analysis methods

Objectives:

  • (o) to enhance urban analysis by develop innovative methods and techniques in support of effective urban sensing and sustainable urban development;
  • (p) to conduct urban analyses by linking Earth observation products with socio-economic and in-situ data to improve knowledge of urban environments and ecosystems;
  • (q) to conduct urban analyses at local, regional, and global scales to improve the understanding of the patterns, processes, and consequences of urbanization in different geographical and socio-economic settings.

Tasks:

  • 18. Survey of existing satellite sensors for urban analysis and monitoring, examining current practices and addressing key limitations and future perspectives of remote sensor technology;
  • 19. Re-examining the scale issue in urban observation and analysis;
  • 20. Reflecting on recent "paradigm shift" in EO/remote sensing technology and implications for urban analysis;
  • 21. implementation of a synergy of datasets and techniques for urban applications in one or more supersites;
  • 22. innovative analysis of urban areas - especially one or more supersites - that uses EO, wireless sensor network, field survey, census, volunteered geographic information, and any form of combination and that can be benefited from the collaboration of the SB-04 team members.