Written By: Xiaoxiao Feng


            In the late 1960, a few of precise models of instructional design procedures were developed and ADDIE model is one of known instructional systems design models. ADDIE stands for analyze, design, develop, implement, and evaluate, which are the five components of instructional system design process (Richey, Klein, & Tracey, 2011). The following figure shows the whole procedure of ADDIE:

The common Task of Instructional Design Model

            With the development of instructional design, various instructional system design model emerges, but most of these models are built based on the ADDIE model (Richey, Klein, & Tracey, 2011). Moreover, the main tasks of these instructional design models are the same. According to Andrews and Goodson’s summary of the common tasks of instructional system design, Richey, Klein, and Tracey (2011) related these common tasks to the basic elements of the general ADDIE model. The following table represents the comparison of the general components of the ADDIE model and instructional systems design common tasks (Richey, Klein, & Tracey, 2011):

ADDIE Element

ISD (Instructional System Design) Common Tasks


Assessment of need, problem identification, job tasks, competence, context, or training requirements
Determination of whether solution should be instructional and/or noninstructional
Formulation of system, environmental, and organizational descriptions and identification of resources and constraints
Characterization of learner population
Analysis of goals and objectives for types of skills/learning required


Formulation of broad goals and detailed objectives stated in observable terms
Sequencing of goals and objectives to facilitate learning and performance
Planning for assessment and evaluation of learning and performance
Consideration of alternative solutions
Formulation of instructional and noninstructional strategies to match content, individual, and organizational requirements
Selection of media to implement strategies


Author and produce interventions based on design plan


Development of materials and procedures for installing, maintaining, and periodically repairing the instructional program
Costing instructional programs


Development of assessment items that match goals and objectives
Empirical try-out of courseware with learner population, diagnosis of learning and courseware failures, and revision of courseware based on diagnosis
Evaluate after full-scale implementation

The Application of ADDIE Model

            Since the ADDIE model generates the basic component of the procedures of instructional, it was applied widely in the course design in virtual learning environment. Moreover, the ADDIE model was deemed the most appropriate model to design and develop the virtual world instruction (Soto, 2013). Soto stated, “Effective online learning is dependent upon the principles of instructional design and development” (p. 365) and admitted the essentialness of ADDIE model in instructional design for virtual learning environment. Furthermore, Soto pointed out, “although the ADDIE process is till used as a foundation model for many instructional designers, researchers have suggested modifications to meet the changing needs of the online educational environment including the virtual classroom” (p. 365). Neal (2011) also approved that ADDIE provide the friendly guidelines to optimize the virtual learning design plan.

            ADDIE model is viewed as the mental guideline that could help instructional designers to resolve the instructional design problems in a systematic way. Due to the application of advanced technologies, the library has extended the ADDIE model to provide better services for the modern community college. Swanson (2005) stated, “The ADDIE model for instructional design is a model that has it origins in the creation of learning experiences and activates, but it may have a broader application to the management of library services in an academic setting” (p. 52). Combing the ADDIE model in the library services, the effectiveness of information age library will be experienced by educators and students.


            In summary, ADDIE model is the most common model in instructional system design. Most of the instructional design models are founded based on the ADDIE model. The educators are still required to make progress on the instructional design models in terms of the development of education. Nowadays, the educators still need to step forward to integrate the ADDIE model into some other research fields to improve the related work performance.


Neal, B. (2011). E-ADDIE. T+D.  

Richey, R. C., Klein, J. D., & Tracey, M. W. (2011). The Instructional Design       Knowledge Base: Theory, Research, and Practice. New York, NY: Routledge.

Soto, V. J. (2013). Which instructional design models are educators using to design            virtual world instruction? Journal of Online Learning & Teaching, 9 (3), 364 - 375.

Swanson, T. A. (2005). ADDIE in the library: Building a model for the information age     library. Community & Junior College Libraries, 13 (2), 51 – 61.